Phytoestrogens

What foods are high in phytoestrogens? Phytoestrogens are a hormone found in some plants, particularly soy beans, beans, sprouts, cabbage, linseed oil and corn. Even in concentrated form when used as a medication, they have only a minimal effect on human oestrogen levels and conditions such as the menopause and…

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Premature Ovarian Failure

What is premature ovarian failure? One in every one hundred women suffers from premature ovarian failure, a condition in which the ovary ceases to function normally at a far earlier age than expected. It is really an onset of the menopause at an early age, usually defined as before 40…

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Puberty

The trigger for puberty is the production of sex hormone releasing factors from the pituitary gland at the base of the brain, which cause sex hormones to be manufactured in the – oestrogen from the ovaries of females, and testosterone from the testes of males. Both sexes show a marked…

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Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel (Taxol) is an antineoplastic medication used as an injection to treat cancer of the breast and ovaries. It must not be used in pregnancy or children, and only with caution in breastfeeding and neuropathy (nerve disease). Regular blood tests are necessary to check the function of blood cells. Common…

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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

In the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or Stein-Leventhal syndrome, multiple small cysts form in one or both ovaries. It occurs in about 7% of women and tends to run in families. The cause is unknown, but is probably a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The cysts interfere with the…

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Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is the presence of excess breast support (stromal) tissue in an area that forms a lump or may involve large parts of the breast to make it firm and lumpy. These growths can increase in size quite quickly and may be mistaken for a of breast cancer.…

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Prolactin

Prolactin is a hormone produced in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that helps control the menstrual cycle and lactation (breastfeeding). High levels cause sterility, amenorrhoea (no menstrual periods) and galactorrhoea (abnormal breast milk production). The normal levels in a blood sample are:- Female 3 to 25 µg/L                    …

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Pregnancy

The first sign that a woman may be pregnant is that she fails to have a menstrual period when one is normally due. At about the same time as the period is missed, the woman may feel unwell, unduly tired, and her breasts may become swollen and uncomfortable. A pregnant…

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Peau D’Orange

In some forms of advanced breast cancer, the skin over the cancer takes on a dimpled appearance similar to that of an orange skin, and is known as peau d’orange (orange peel in French).

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Paget’s Disease Of The Nipple

Paget’s disease of the nipple (nipple cancer) is an uncommon type of cancer that starts in the milk ducts of the nipple, and may spread rapidly along these ducts, deep into the breast.  The cause is unknown, but it is uncommon, occurring in only one in every one hundred breast…

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