Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

What is PSA? A test for the prostate specific antigen (PSA) can be used to follow the success of treatment for prostate cancer and infection. If the levels drop, treatment is successful; if they increase, it is not. There has been a lot of controversy about the use of this…

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Pregnancy Test

How early can you tell if you are pregnant? From the 1920s to the 1960s, a pregnancy test was performed by injecting the woman’s urine into an African clawed frog. If the woman was pregnant, the frog would ovulate and spawned eggs would become visible around its pelvis within a…

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Penis Enlargement

Medical operations to enlarge Penis: Operations for penis enlargement are often promoted by cosmetic surgeons for men who believe that their penis is too small. Lengthening operations release the penis from its attachments to the pelvis to allow one or two centimetres of extra length. Claims that greater lengths can…

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Penis Prosthesis

How to get an erection surgically? Men who are unable to obtain an erection by other means can have an implant or prosthesis inserted into the penis. It consists of a pair of inflatable sausage shaped tubes that run the length of the penis, with a bulb and valve in…

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Prostatectomy

What is prostatectomy? A prostatectomy is an operation to remove all or part of the prostate gland, either through the urethra (penis urine tube), by an open operation or by minimally invasive robotic surgery.

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Pap Smear

What is pap smear? Pap is short for Papanicolou, the name of the Greek/American doctor who developed this cervical smear test in 1932. A Pap smear is used to detect any abnormality of the cervix, including infections and erosions. What does a pap smear test for? Chronic infections of the…

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Pfannenstiel Incision

What is Pfannenstiel incision? A Pfannenstiel incision is one made across the lower abdomen just above the pubic bone in order to gain surgical access to the uterus (eg. for a Caesarean section) and bladder. The underlying muscles are separated in the direction of their fibres with minimal cutting.

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