Testicular and Scrotum Pain

Testicular and scrotum pain

What causes pain in testicles?

Testicular and scrotum pain can develop suddenly or gradually, but in all cases must be checked by a doctor, particularly in children or young men.

Torsion of the testis is a medical emergency in which the testicle twists around and blocks the blood vessels that supply it. Pain occurs in both the testicle and the groin. Surgery must be performed within twelve hours or the testicle will die.

Epididymo-orchitis is a bacterial or viral infection of the epididymis (sperm collecting ducts on the back and top of the testicle) and the testicle itself. The symptoms include pain, tenderness and fever.

Orchitis is a viral infection of the testicle, usually as a complication of a generalised glandular infection such as mumps, brucellosis (caught from cattle) or glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis). The testicle becomes acutely tender, painful and swollen, and in rare cases may be permanently damaged.

Other causes of testicular pain include:

  • a torted hydatid of Morgagni (twisting of a tiny dead end sac on the epididymis),
  • gonorrhoea (a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae),
  • referred pain from the lower back
  • cancer of the testicle.

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